Chronic Care Chronic care is needed to deal with long-term, ongoing conditions or diseases e. Chronic care is complex, and, in order to be effective and safe, it frequently requires careful planning. It often requires learning and continuing to perform new procedures and equipment operation.
IntervalLevels of MeasurementNominalOrdinalRatioSocial Science Research Empirical research in the social sciences requires both accurate and reliable measures. When it comes to quantification of people, perceptions, and events, there are 4 main types of measurement.
One mistake many social science researchers make is collecting data at a lower level than is necessary. As it turns out, it is always possible to transform data from a higher level to a lower level but never the other way around. Before you collect data for a research study, consider carefully which of the 4 types of data you are collecting and how you will use them once you have them.
Some data are naturally suited to the nominal scale such as males vs. The nominal scale forms the basis for such analyses as Analysis of Variance ANOVA because those analyses require that some category is compared to at least one other category.
No data is captured that can place the measured object on any kind of scale say, for example, on a continuum from one to ten. Coding of nominal scale data can be accomplished using numbers, letters, labels, or any symbol that represents a category into which an object can either belong or not belong.
Ordinal Scale The ordinal scale has at least one major advantage over the nominal scale. The ordinal scale contains all of the information captured in the nominal scale but it also ranks data from lowest to highest.
Rather than simply categorize data by placing an object either into or not into a category, ordinal data give you some idea of where data lie in relation to each other. For example, suppose you are conducting a study on cigarette smoking and you capture how many packs of cigarettes three smokers consume in a day.
It turns out that the first subject smokes one pack a day, the second smokes two packs a day, and the third smokes ten packs a day. Using an ordinal scale, your data would look like this. Ten packs a day smoker Two packs a day smoker One pack a day smoker The ordinal scale rank orders the subjects by how many packs of cigarettes they smoke in one day.
Notice, however, that although you can use the ordinal scale to rank the subjects, there is some important data missing; the first smoker occupies a rank the same distance from the second smoker as the second smoker occupies a rank the same distance from the third smoker.
Consequently, no information exists in the ordinal scale to indicate the distance one smoker is from the others except for the ranking. Richer than nominal scaling, ordinal scaling still suffers from some information loss in the data. Interval Scale Unlike the nominal scale that simply places objects into or out of a category or the ordinal scale that rank orders objects, the interval scale indicates the distance one object is from another.
In the social sciences, there is a famous example often taught to students on this distinction. Suppose you are near the shore of a lake and you see three tree stumps sticking out of the water.
Using the water as a reference point, it would be easy to measure which stump rises highest out of the water. In this way, you can create a relative measure of the height of the stumps from the surface of the water. For example, the first stump may breach the water by twenty-four centimeters, the second by twenty-six centimeters, and the third by twenty-eight centimeters.
Unlike the nominal and ordinal scales, you can make relative distance measurements among objects using the interval scale. However, the distance the stumps extend out of the water gives you no indication of how long the stumps actually are.
Using interval scaling, you have no indication of the absolute length of the stumps. Still, the interval scale contains richer information that the two lower levels of scaling.
Ratio Scale The scale that contains the richest information about an object is ratio scaling. The ratio scale contains all of the information of the previous three levels plus it contains an absolute zero point.
To use the example above, the ratio scale allows you to measure the stumps from the bottom of the lake; the bottom of the lake represents the absolute zero point. The distinction between interval and ratio scales is an important one in the social sciences. Although both can capture continuous data, you have to be careful not to assume that the lowest possible score in your data collection automatically represents an absolute zero point.
Take extraversion captured using a psychometrically sound survey instrument. The items that capture this construct may range from zero to ten on the survey but there is no guarantee that a score of zero on the survey places a subject at the absolute zero point on the extraversion construct.Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Knowledge-Based Systems Concepts, Techniques, Examples Reid G. Smith Schlumberger-Doll Research Old Quarry Road Ridgefield, CT USA Presented at the Canadian High Technology Show.
Lansdowne Park, Ottawa, ON, May 8, Task definition means to be sure about the job you have to do. Let's assume you have an assignment from a teacher. Most teachers give an . Examples & Samples of Case Study.
There are multiple ways of making the process of completing the assignment easier, including ordering a task at a writing service or asking other students for help. The IELTS writing task 2 sample answer below has examiner comments and is band score 9.
The topic of social media is common and this IELTS essay question was reported in the IELTS test.
THE RESEARCH PROCESS - DETAILS AND EXAMPLES Introduction must contain all the sections, described above. An example of a completed research problem statement is given in Figure B Volume I: Appendix B - 4 and rational scientific plan.
The plan shall describe each phase or task of the researc h to be undertaken.