Share This Page These guidelines identify important issues that collection administrators should address in developing adequate security measures and a strategy for responding to thefts.
The following section describes these potential benefits in more detail. Reduced Fear of Crime Numerous studies have tried to determine if the presence of cameras in public places reduces fear of crime in people who use the area. The general argument is that the area will benefit from a positive economic impact when people feel safer.
The findings are mixed but generally show there is some reduced level of fear of crime among people in CCTV areas, but only among people who were aware they were in an area under surveillance.
Most studies exploring the perception of surveillance areas found that less than half the interviewees were aware they were in a CCTV area. Reduced fear of crime in an area may increase the number of people using the area, hence increasing natural surveillance. It may also encourage people to be more security conscious.
Aid to Police Investigations Regardless of Larceny theft and extremely important resources potential for a CCTV system to have a role in crime prevention, it can still make a contribution in a detection role. There are numerous examples of CCTV tapes aiding in an offender's conviction.
Camera footage can also help identify potential witnesses who might not otherwise come forward to police. CCTV camera evidence can be compelling, though issues of image quality are a factor if CCTV images are used for identification purposes.
If the cameras record an incident, and police respond rapidly and make an arrest within view of the camera and the offender does not leave the sight of the camerathe recording of the incident can help investigators gain a conviction, usually through a guilty plea. The potential to assist in police investigations may also drive offenders away from committing offenses that take time, as they run a greater risk of capture.
Provision of Medical Assistance As a community safety feature, CCTV camera operators can contact medical services if they see people in the street suffering from illness or injury as a result of criminal activity such as robberies and assaults or non-crime medical emergencies. The ability to summon assistance is a public safety benefit of CCTV.
Squires found that police are called about 10 to 20 times for every hours of observation The cameras can be used to look for lost children, to monitor traffic flow, public meetings, or demonstrations that may require additional police resources, or to determine if alarms have been activated unnecessarily thus removing the need for a police response.
Brown reports that some police commanders claim that assaults on police have reduced because the cameras allow them to determine the appropriate level of response to an incident, either by sending more officers to large fights, or by limiting the number of officers to a minor incident and avoid inflaming the situation Information Gathering Cameras can also be used to gather intelligence and to monitor the behavior of known offenders in public places such as shoplifters in public retail areas.
Camera operators often come to know the faces of local offenders, and the cameras become a way to monitor their movements in a less intrusive manner than deploying plainclothes police officers. For example, officers in one city were able to gather intelligence on the behavior of individuals selling stolen goods.
This intelligence was gathered remotely by CCTV cameras and enabled police to interdict in an organized and coordinated manner Although intelligence gathering is a potential benefit of CCTV, the use of intelligence gathered from CCTV to control public order through surveillance is perceived by some to be a threat to civil liberties Diffusion of Benefits Although rarely addressed in the research literature, there is also the distinct possibility that if offenders are aware and cautious in the presence of cameras, they may be unaware of the extent of the cameras' capabilities.
As a result they may curtail their criminal activity in a wider area than that covered by the camera system. In effect, this extends the value of the cameras beyond their area of operation, a process criminologists call a diffusion of benefits Unintended Consequences Although not discussed in the literature of companies that sell cameras, CCTV systems may also have some unintended consequences.
Displacement, Increased suspicion or fear of crime, and Increased crime reporting. These possibilities are discussed in the following section. Displacement There are many different types of displacement.
Instead of a reduction in offenses, you may see offenders react by moving their offending to a place out of sight of the CCTV cameras. This is an example of spatial displacement. The evaluations in Appendix A suggest that spatial displacement can occasionally take place, but - as is the case with the general crime prevention literature 20 - the amount of crime displaced rarely matches the amount of crime reduced.
There is usually a net gain for crime prevention. In all of the studies evaluated for this report, there is not a single example of a complete displacement of all crime from a CCTV area to a neighboring area.
In the evidence presented here, spatial displacement is not the issue many people think it is, and in most of the studies there is little evidence of spatial displacement. A CCTV system may also force the criminal fraternity to be more imaginative and to diversify operations.
For example, researchers reported that in a London drug market the presence of cameras encouraged the drug market to move to a system where orders were taken by mobile phone and then delivered, and as such "increase the speed and ingenuity of the drug transaction" This is an example of tactical displacement, where offenders change their modus operandi to continue the same criminal acts.
Even though this particular introduction of CCTV may not be seen as an unqualified success, that the CCTV system forced a change in behavior is positive. CCTV is likely to have forced drug dealers to adopt a less effective way of conducting business, resulting in a net reduction in crime.
Increased Suspicion or Fear of Crime A second concern is the possibility of a negative public response to the cameras' existence. In one survey, one-third of respondents felt that one purpose of CCTV was "to spy on people" Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.
Medicaid also offers benefits not normally covered by Medicare, like nursing home care and personal care services. The Health Insurance Association of America describes Medicaid as a "government insurance program for persons of all ages whose.
Health plans are important for Seniors. Please review this important information. Shoplifting law deals with theft crimes that occur in retail establishments. Perpetrators are shoppers who enter the establishment with permission.
Shoplifting law deals with theft crimes that occur in retail establishments. Perpetrators are shoppers who enter the establishment with permission. An experienced Fairfax, Virginia criminal lawyer if you are facing criminal charges in Virginia.
Contact Karin Riley Porter today for a free case analysis. Legal representation is usually the only real way to enter into a plea bargain because the lawyer will negotiate with the other legal team to acquire the best possible deal with the prosecution.