The product, dubbed tisagenlecleucel pronounced tis-a-gen-LEK-loo-sellis the first gene therapy of any kind to be approved in the United States. More specifically, tisagenlecleucel is a type of chimeric antigen receptor T cell CAR-T therapy, a technique pioneered by immunologist Carl June and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania. Like the other leading-edge immunotherapy technique — a class of drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors — CAR-T has shown unparalleled potency against cancers that once meant almost certain death. The therapy was also effective for several other types of blood cancer.
Wild animals have their own epidemics, which are called epizootics, as well as circulating diseases like colds or flus in humans. Overviews of epizootic prevalence in animals are rare in the literature, but epizootics are common in nature.
Some epizootics are traced to spillover events. Much of the existing research on spillover in wild animals is on topics of human health or veterinary interest, e. Researchers also commonly study animal disease as it affects conservation of endangered populations.
What factors affect parasite load and disease? Researchers look at two metrics to study the magnitude of parasitic burden on a species or an individual: Both of these are correlated, though not directly — more diverse ecosystems frequently, although not always, have more abundance and biomass Cardinale et al.
Richness and abundance across species and populations When looking at whole species or populations of a species, researchers usually examine richness. Parasitic richness among different species depends on a variety of factors.
Non-autochthonous1Not originating in the place where found; non-native or introduced populations have fewer parasites than autochthonous2Originating in the place where found; native or local. Animals that eat a larger volume of food, e. From insects to human beings, social animals have more parasites and infectious diseases than solitary animals, because potential hosts are more densely concentrated.
For example, sparring dear transmit papovavirus through open wounds, which leads to skin tumors Sorensen et al. Richness and abundance in individual animals Parasite load varies drastically between individuals. Old and juvenile animals are more likely to have and die from parasites.
Older animals have also generally accumulated more non-lethal parasites over their lives, which may still exact a fitness cost Lester, Some individuals have unusually high levels of parasites.
The effect is well-known in both human and animal outbreaks. The reason this happens in some individuals but not others is somewhat unclear, but may have to do with unusual illness characteristics that lead to higher rates of spread — for instance, humans with Staphylococcus aureus colonizing the respiratory system are more likely to transmit it to others than those where it colonizes the skin, its usual location Stein, One of these is the complicated nature of parasitism.
Parasitism is a form of symbiosis, an umbrella category that also includes mutualism both organisms benefit from an association and commensalism where one organism benefits and another is unaffected.
These categories are not clearly delineated in nature. Sometimes, most of the harm of a pathogen comes from the immune response it triggers, rather than direct bodily harm. Some animals have behavioral strategies to deal with parasites, like preening in birds or social grooming in mammals.
Animals from butterflies to sparrows to elephants seek out anti-parasitic compounds, either to prevent parasites e. Some entire species, like cleaner wrasses or oxpecker birds, survive by removing parasites from other animals Goldman, n.
These could suggest that external parasites no longer bother host animals with relationships to these species.Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Healthcare Settings Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir CRE, which stands for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics.
There are some truths that I strive to preach, for lack of a better word, in today's information-culture wars propagated in our corrupt mainstream media. Lifting the Veil An Investigative History of the United States Pathocracy. Researched and Written by Timothy M.
Silver “I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America. The war against genetically modified organisms is full of fearmongering, errors, and fraud. Labeling them will not make you safer. Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends.